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   - Pre-classical
      - Empfindsamer Stil
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      - Mannheim
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  • Mannheim rose to prominence as a cultural centre in south Germany early in the eighteen century, under the active patronage of two successive Electors of the Palatinate, Carl Philipp and especially, Carl Theodor.

  • A well-endowed opera house was founded.

  • The music establishment of the court was mainly directed towards opera, but instrumental and church music were well supported too.

  • Concerts took place twice a week in the Rittersaal at the centre of the palace, which visitors were allowed to attend free of charge


Composers of the Mannheim School include:
  • Johann Stamitz (1717-57)
  • Franz Xaver Richter (1709-89)
  • Ignaz Holzbauer (1711-83)
  • Christian Cannabich (1731-98)
  • Carl Joseph Toeschi (1731-88)
  • Anton Filtz (1733-60)
  • Carl Stamitz (1745-1801)

Adapted from Layton, Robert. "A companion to the Symphony" Simon and Schuster Ltd.1993: 17-21.

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